Caveat on all the maps

These maps exist for educational and general reference purposes only. While all efforts have been made to make them as accurate as possible without destroying clarity, there is no absolute guarantee of accuracy. As such, these maps have no reliability for purposes of navigation, border disputes, or tribal claims.

These maps are about power and political reality, not legitimacy

International borders reflect those recognized at the time by most powers, colors reflect control at the time. Neither has anything to do with what was then or is now perceived as right or wrong, just or unjust.

Key to the Historical Atlas of Europe 7 Nov 1917

Political Control Color Guide

As used in the Historical Atlas of Europe (7 November 1917). May differ for other dates and regions.

GermanyFranceRussia
BritainItalyBolshevik Russia
Ottoman EmpireSpainAustria-Hungary
Allies, InternationalCossacksNetherlands
United StatesPortugalNorway
PersiaNo Central ControlDenmark
Sweden

Stripes indicate regions of divided control or influence. Annotations and rollovers will often provide more information.

More on influence and control...

More on the colors used...

Alliances

Alliances are indicated by a frame around a polity's name on the map. Styles shown below are for the Historical Atlas of Europe (7 November 1917). They will differ for other dates and regions.

ALLIANCE MEMBER Central Powers
ALLIANCE MEMBER Allies (WWI)
ALLIANCE MEMBER Soviet Union
NEUTRAL or Dependent Other countries and dependents

Typography

INDEPENDENT STATE
An internationally-recognized independent sovereign state
Dependent State
An internationally-recognized state under outside control
INDEPENDENT REGION
A state or region which is de facto independent but lacks widespread international recognition
Subdivision
A dependent region administered as a single unit
INDEPENDENT GROUP
An effectively independent group of people with either little claim to independence or minimal unity (for instance: civil war factions, tribal bodies, cultures, etc.)
Dependent Group or Region
A group or disunified region with little or no independence
  Microstate
Microstate, settlement, base, or colony (same typographic convention as above)
(annotation)
A note providing more information on a polity or region
capital Capital
A relevant capital city
city City
A relevant city
conflict Conflict
A battle, revolt, massacre, raid, or other conflict

Borders

                       
An internationally-recognized international border
                       
A de facto, disputed, or poorly defined international border
                       
Unrecognized border or military front

Examples

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