Fall of Wuhan
Second Sino-Japanese War
East Asia 1938.1027
Fall of Wuhan
Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan-China War, Rape of Nanking (27 October 1938)
Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific
Although the defeat at Tai'erzhuang was a setback, the Japanese were soon on the offensive again. By October, they had seized most of the coastline, including Canton, and marched inland to capture the new Nationalist headquarters at Wuhan. Less auspiciously for Japan, tensions with the Soviet Union had led to a border clash at Lake Khasan in July.
Treaty ports were towns opened to foreign trade by unequal treaties in China. Foreigners operating within treaty ports enjoyed extraterritoriality, being subject to their home country's laws. Unlike concessions such as Hong Kong, these territories were not directly leased by the foreign powers and did not have sizable foreign garrisons.
Treaty ports are not shown in the maps after the 1911 Chinese Revolution in order to give a clearer picture of the chaos in China itself and as by that point their numbers had stabilized. After the revolution, some of the smaller ports were phased out while the others became less important as the situation in China meant that only the concessions could provide foreigners with security. Most, however, still continued on into the 1940s when the Japanese entry into World War II and foreign agreements with China brought them to an end.
See this map for treaty ports in 1907, when the system was at its peak.
By the terms of the Treaty of Tientsin (1858), foreign vessels including warships had the right to free navigation on the Yangtze River. In practical terms, this right extended only as far as Yichang until 1900, when advances in steam navigation allowed access as far inland as Chongqing.
Japanese occupy Amoy (Xiamen), China
Japanese take Xuzhou, China, connecting their northern and central armies
Nationalist Chinese burst Yellow River dykes at Huayuankou in attempt to halt Japanese advance
Battle of Wuhan
Japanese capture Wuhan, headquarters of Nationalist Chinese government
Battle of Lake Khasan
Border clash between Japanese troops in Manchukuo and Soviet Union