The Rise of Japan
East Asia 1899.0603
The Rise of Japan, the Spanish-American War, and the Boxer Rebellion (3 June 1899)
Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific
Philippine nationalists had helped the United States in its 1898 war with Spain. However, when the Americans won that war, they proceeded to replace the Spanish as the colonial rulers of the Philippines. In response, the nationalists proclaimed a Philippine Republic, fighting an unsuccessful 3-year war for their independence.
Second Samoan Civil War
The Matafaans - German-supported followers of Mata'afa Iosefo - exiled Samoan King Tanumafili from Apia, provoking the United States Navy and the Royal Navy to intervene on his behalf. After retaking Apia in March 1899, the Allies pushed on the Matafaan stronghold of Vailele, but were continuously repulsed. As a result, the Americans, British, and Germans agreed to the partition Samoa at the Tripartite Convention in December 1899.
Annexation of Wake Island
Under orders from US President William McKinley, Commander Edward D. Taussig of the USS Bennington landed on Wake Island and formally took possession of the uninhabited island for the United States. As Wake was well-positioned on the route between Honolulu and Manila, it had been marked as an ideal location for a telegraph cable and/or coaling station.
First Philippine Republic
In accordance with the Malolos Constitution, the first Philippine Republic was proclaimed in Malolos, Philippines, with revolutionary Emilio Aguinaldo as first president. The republic was formed in opposition to the United States, which controlled Manila and had replaced Spain as the colonial power in the Philippines.
On 4 February 1899, US troops fired on Filipino soldiers surrounding Manila, starting a war between the United States and the first Philippine Republic. After successive US victories in the field as they seized control of the main centers in the islands, the Philippine revolutionaries turned to guerrilla warfare in November 1899. It was not until 1902 that the US defeated the last major Filipino resistance, with unrest in the south continuing for another decade.
The Kingdom of Spain sold its remaining islands in the Pacific Ocean to the German Empire for 25 million pesetas (17 million Marks). As a result, the Germans gained the Northern Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, and Palau, which they occupied over the following year.