ANZUS

Decolonization of the Pacific

Australasia 1951.0901

ANZUS

Decolonization of the Pacific (1 September 1951)

Historical Map of Australia, New Zealand & the Southwest Pacific

By August 1950, the nationalists were in control of Indonesia, replacing the United States of Indonesia with a unified Republic. Meanwhile the Korean War had broken out, bringing the Cold War which had been brewing between the United States and the Soviet Union into full swing. To shore up the defence against communism in the South Pacific, the US signed the ANZUS Pact with Australia and New Zealand in 1951.

Main Events

Korean War

North Korea invades South Korea, triggering a United States-led United Nations intervention to support the South Koreans. A UN counteroffensive pushes the North Koreans north to their border with the People's Republic of China, which prompts the Chinese to enter the war in October 1950. After an initial UN reversal, the war settles into a two year stalemate which is ended with an armistice in July 1953.

Dissolution of the United States of Indonesia

After gradually dissolving the non-Republic states of the the Republic of the United States of Indonesia (RUSI) into the Republic of Indonesia over the first half of 1950, President Sukarno officially dissolves the RUSI and replaces it with a unitary Republic of Indonesia.

End of the Republic of South Maluku

The Indonesian Army extinguishes the Republic of South Maluku, although guerrilla forces remain at large in the islands for years. In the aftermath, the Dutch government agrees to the resettlement of many Moluccan KNIL soldiers and their families - about 12,500 people in total - in the Netherlands, with the intention of one day repatriating them to Indonesia.

ANZUS Treaty

Australia, New Zealand, and the United States sign the Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS) in San Francisco, USA. The treaty provides that an armed attack on any of the three parties would be seen and met as a common danger by the other parties, however unlike NATO it has no integrated defense structure or dedicated forces.

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